Countries create trade regulation laws to ensure free trade and fair competition between local and international businesses at a national level. Trade regulation is usually closely related to antitrust law, and each code may have an antitrust law component.

Although the U.S. is a federal republic and has certain powers in its Constitution, such as regulating the money supply and declaring war, it does not have any power over trade and commerce within a state. The government has limited control over the business, such as through the Commerce Clause.

This means that states' antitrust and trade regulation laws are enacted mainly and regulated, with some rules also set and enforced by federal authorities.

The Federal Trade Commission enforces antitrust laws for the United and state governments to protect competition. For example, the FTC can challenge a merger or practice by a business that it believes may unduly limit competition.

A Canadian province is created when four or more people move into an area together and turn that area into a settlement. Trade within a Canadian region is regulated exclusively by the Canadian government. There are no state trade regulations.